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Mitral Valve Prolapse

Overview

Mitral valve prolapse is a heart problem in which the valve that separates the upper and lower chambers of the left side of the heart does not close properly. In this disorder the mitral heart valve does not close properly, causing blood to leak (back-flow) into the left atrium whenthe left ventricle contracts. Regurgitation (leaking from insufficient valve closure) is caused by disorders that weaken or damages the valve. Inadequate closure of the mitral valve causes blood to backflow to the left atrium. The blood flows to the rest of the body is decreased because of the backflow. The heart may pump harder to try to compensate for the decreased blood flow to the body.


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Causes

Acute mitral regurgitation may be the result of dysfunction or injury to the valve following MI or infective endocarditis. These conditions may result in rupture of the valve, papillary muscle, or chordae tendineae (the structures that anchor the valvecusps). A rupture of these structures results in the valve leaflet prolapsing (protruding) into the atrium, leaving an opening forthe backflow of blood. The mitral valve helps blood on the left side to flow in one direction and closes to prevent blood to move backward during heart beating. Mitral valves which are structurally abnormal can raise high risk of bacterial infection. This is also because of heredity. Mitral valve prolapse mainly affects thin women who may have minor chest wall deformities, or connective tissue disorders.


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Signs & Symptoms

Many patients with mitral valve prolapse do not have symptoms. some symptoms found in patients with mitral valve prolapse includes:

  • Sensation of feeling the heart beat
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty in breathing after any activity
  • Fatigue
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath when lying flat
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Prevention

Mitral valve prolapse usually cant be prevented, but certain complications can be prevented, such as irregular heartbeats and infective endocarditis by giving antibiotics. Some types of surgery and dental work can also help in preventing  infection, including cleaning, and any invasive procedure can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream. This bacteria can infect a damaged mitral valve causingendocarditis. Preventive treatment with antibiotics given just before dental or other invasive procedures may decrease the risk ofendocarditis. Check for any history of heart valve disease orcongenital heart disease before treatment by a health care provider or dentist. Any dental work,


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Treatments
Antibiotic medications Modern Medicine


Antibiotics can also be used to prevent infections. Other drugs that may be prescribed when heart problems occurs:

  • Anti-arrhythmic drugs helps in controlling irregular heartbeats.
  • Vasodilators dilate blood vessels.
  • Digitalis may be used to strengthen heartbeat
  • Diuretics to remove excess fluid in the lungs.
  • Propranolol for chest pain.
  • Anticoagulants for preventing blood clots for releiving from atrial fibrillation.
Surgery Modern Medicine

Hospitalization may be required for diagnosis and treatment of severe symptoms. The goal of treatment is to control the symptoms. Emergency surgery is often necessary if acute regurgitation is a result of endocarditis, MI, or ruptured cordae.

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