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Aortic Dissection

Overview

Aortic dissection is a condition in which tear develops in the inner layer of the aorta and bleeding takes place into and along its wall. Aorta is an artery that carries blood out of the heart. Due to blood surging, inner and middle layer of the wall gets separated. Type A and Type B are two groups of aortic dissection. The type A involves tearing of aorta in the ascending order, whereas type B involves tearing in the descending order.  

The condition is uncommon and usually occurs in males between the age group of 60-70 years. The condition can be treated significantly if detected at earlier stages and taken treatment at right time.


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Causes

The condition occurs in weakened areas of the aortic wall. It is believed that high blood pressure condition put stress on the aortic tissue, making tissue more susceptible towards tearing.  In rare cases, aortic dissection is an outcome of traumatic injury of the chest area. Some other conditions like pregnancy; heart surgeries, aging, connective tissue disorders, etc. increase the risk of the development of the disorder.


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Signs & Symptoms

The symptoms usually occur suddenly and start with severe chest pain. The chest pain can move to neck, jaw arm, etc. when the condition gets worse. The other symptoms are:

  • Fainting
  • Dry skin and dry mouth
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Decreased sensation and movement in some body parts
  • Shortness of breath
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Prevention

Prompt treatment, control of hardening of the arteries, normal blood pressure, etc are some of the conditions that reduce risk significantly.


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Treatments
Ascending Aorta Replacement Modern Medicine

Surgery

Bentall Operation Composite Valve Graft Modern Medicine

Surgery

Conservative Treatment Modern Medicine

The treatment of the condition helps in preventing complications. The condition demands hospitalization. The Type A aortic dissection is treated through surgery in which aorta is repaired. The type B is treated with medications. Drugs that help in lowering blood pressure are recommended along with strong pain relievers. If aortic valve gets damaged, replacement is required.

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